Manmade fibers, such as nylon, polyester, and rayon, are produced by chemical reactions controlled by people, rather than occurring naturally. The term synthetic fibers is often used to designate manmade fibers; however, to many people, this term has a negative
connotation, meaning inauthentic, artificial, or fake. TFPIA classifies manmade or manufactured fibers by generic names. Currently, TFPIA recognizes 26 generic groups of manmade fibers. Three conditions must be met before a new generic group is established:
• The chemical composition must be radically different from those on the list, and that chemical constitution must produce significantly different physical properties.
• A new proposed classification must have importance to the majority of consumers and not just to a small group of professionals.
• The fiber must be in active commercial development. Manmade fibers are identified as being made from a natural polymer base, made from a synthetic polymer base, or mineral- or specialty-based.
2.2.1 Natural-Polymer-Based Fibers
Natural-polymer-based fibers include cellulose-based, protein-based, alginate, rubber, and starch fibers.
Cellulose-based fibers include rayon, acetate, triacetate, and lyocell.
2.2.2 Synthetic-Polymer-Based Fibers
Synthetic-polymer-based fibers are those made from chemical polymers not found in nature. These fibers are mainly insoluble and are not chemically reactive. The most common synthetic polymer-based fibers are acrylics, aramids, modacrylics, nylon,
olefins, polyester, and spandex.
2.2.3 Manmade Mineral-Based and Specialty Fibers
Manmade mineral-based and specialty fibers include special-use fibers such as glass fibers and metallic fibers.
About Man-made Fibres
Man-made fibres account for 68% of all fibres produced worldwide, and for 82% in Europe, including Turkey.
World production was 58.6 million tonnes in 2012. European production was 4.6 million tonnes.
Their principal end-use is in clothing, carpets, household textiles and a wide range of technical products - tyres, conveyor belts, fillings for sleeping bags and cold-weather clothing, filters for improving the quality of air and water in the environment, fire-resistant materials, reinforcement in composites used for advanced aircraft production, and much else. Fibres are precisely engineered to give the right combination of qualities required for the end-use in question: appearance, handle, strength, durability, stretch, stability, warmth, protection, easy care, breathability, moisture absorption and value for money, for example. In many cases, they are used in blends with natural fibres such as cotton and wool.
Man-made fibres come in two main forms: continuous filament, used for weaving, knitting or carpet production; and staple, discontinuous lengths of fibre which can be spun into yarn or incorporated in unspun uses such as fillings or nonwovens.